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JAN 19, 2024

Research: SatoshiVM

by Nova Research, 9iC58vWrjHCbUJE5RHbRS5Atr2GCE4143vfFZZoW3g4x


SatoshiVM emerges as a groundbreaking Layer 2 solution, bridging the robust security of Bitcoin with the versatility of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). This research explores SatoshiVM's innovative approach, leveraging Zero-Knowledge (ZK) Rollups and native BTC for transaction processing. Aimed at institutional investors, this research delves into the technological architecture, comparative advantages, and potential market implications of SatoshiVM.


Bitcoin's inception marked the dawn of decentralized digital assets, sparking exponential growth in adoption and technological evolution. Yet, as its user base burges, scalability emerges as a paramount concern. Traditional Bitcoin infrastructure, while pioneering, grapples with limitations in transaction throughput and processing efficiency. Layer 2 (L2) solutions, including the Lightning Network and Liquid Network, signify strides toward scalability, yet the quest for an optimal blend of security, efficiency, and interoperability persists. SatoshiVM enters this landscape as a novel paradigm, harmonizing the security tenets of Bitcoin with the dynamic capabilities of the EVM ecosystem.
  • Layer 2 solutions are instrumental in scaling blockchain capabilities, functioning atop the main chain to expedite transaction processing.
  • ZK Rollups, pivotal in this domain, bundle numerous transactions into single, verifiable proofs, significantly enhancing data throughput and security.

Technological Features of SatoshiVM

ZK EVM Compatibility SatoshiVM's EVM compatibility ensures a familiar terrain for developers and users, akin to Ethereum's environment. This strategic design choice not only fosters a seamless transition for Ethereum developers but also expands the horizons for Bitcoin's functionality and application ecosystem.

ZK Rollup Mechanism

At SatoshiVM's core lies the ZK Rollup technology, proficiently aggregating multiple transactions into a single batch. This batch undergoes validation on the Bitcoin network, inheriting Bitcoin's legendary security while significantly curbing the data processed on the main chain. The result is a harmonious balance between uncompromised security and elevated transaction throughput.

ZK Fraud Proofs

SatoshiVM introduces an innovative use of Taproot and Bitcoin Script, enabling on-chain verification of contracts without unsettling Bitcoin's consensus rules. This mechanism not only fortifies the network against fraudulent activities but also enriches the security framework integral to institutional adoption.

Data Availability

The protocol's commitment to data transparency ensures that transaction data is accessible on the Bitcoin main network. This feature is instrumental in validating the legitimacy of off-chain computations, reinforcing trust and reliability.

BTC as Native Gas

In a pioneering move, SatoshiVM employs native BTC as gas, mirroring the operational dynamics of Ethereum's Layer 2 solutions. This strategic choice not only simplifies the transaction process but also integrates the intrinsic value and widespread acceptance of BTC into everyday transactions and smart contract operations.

Comparative Analysis

While the Lightning and Liquid networks marked significant strides toward scalability, SatoshiVM introduces a novel and robust approach, integrating advancements in on-chain verification and Layer-2 implementation. Unlike its predecessors, SatoshiVM not only addresses transaction speed and efficiency but also significantly enhances the functional landscape of Bitcoin into decentralized applications and smart contracts, a domain traditionally dominated by Ethereum.

Uniqueness of SatoshiVM:

  1. Advanced On-Chain Verification: SatoshiVM presents an enhanced method for validating the execution of arbitrary functions on Bitcoin, specifically designed to bolster Layer-2 block verification. This method significantly streamlines the L2 block verification scheme's implementation on Bitcoin, reducing the necessity for multiple transactions in traditional designs. This efficiency is achieved by measuring the time difference between bit commitments and verification transactions and analyzing their combined results.
  2. SVMZK Integration: The integration of SVMZK within SatoshiVM plays a crucial role in preventing transaction reordering by the sequencer, thereby enhancing the robustness and reliability of the blockchain. This innovation contributes to advancing secure and efficient Layer-2 solutions on Bitcoin, addressing a common concern in traditional blockchain systems – transaction reordering.
  3. Enhanced Functionality through Script Storage and Off-Chain Data Sharing: SatoshiVM acknowledges the need for continuous refinement, particularly in script storage and the facilitation of off-chain data sharing. These enhancements are pivotal in fortifying the overall robustness and scalability of the proposed verification system, making SatoshiVM a state-of-the-art platform in the blockchain arena.
  4. Streamlined Verification Process: The verification methodology employed by SatoshiVM leverages enhancements to BitVM and Tapleaf Circuits, introducing a cost-effective and speedy solution tailored for the rigorous block verification requirements of Layer-2. This approach ensures the precise execution of L2 blocks on Bitcoin, seamlessly integrating with the existing infrastructure and positioning Bitcoin as a secure settlement layer for L2 transactions.
  5. Streamlined Block Management: With features like a private mempool to prevent opportunities for MEV and a dynamic block generation system, SatoshiVM prioritizes transaction efficiency and security, ensuring a reliable and user-friendly experience.
  6. Asset Bridging and Fraud Proofs: Facilitates secure and seamless asset transfers between Bitcoin and SatoshiVM, backed by a robust fraud proof mechanism. This mechanism ensures the integrity of state commitments, safeguarding the network against fraudulent activities and maintaining the ledger's fidelity.
  7. Comprehensive Third-Party Verification: The framework of SatoshiVM enables third parties to verify the correctness of function executions, providing an additional layer of transparency and trust. This is especially crucial in an ecosystem where the verifier's ability to identify inaccuracies and inconsistencies plays a vital role in maintaining the integrity of the blockchain.

$SAVM Token: The Fuel of SatoshiVM's Ecosystem


$SAVM, the native utility token of SatoshiVM, stands at the forefront of the platform's economic model. Launched recently on the Ethereum network, $SAVM mirrors Bitcoin's scarcity principle with a total supply of 21 million tokens. Despite the current ambiguity surrounding its specific utility, $SAVM's distribution and unlocking mechanisms are meticulously crafted to align with SatoshiVM's long-term vision and ecosystem sustainability.

Token Distribution Overview

The distribution of $SAVM tokens is strategically designed to support various stakeholders within the SatoshiVM ecosystem:
  • Ecosystem (36.5%): Reserved to foster growth and development within the SatoshiVM ecosystem, ensuring a robust and vibrant network.
  • Liquidity (30%): Allocated to facilitate liquidity across platforms, promoting seamless token transactions and stability.
  • Contributors (15%): Acknowledges the invaluable contributions of the developers and team members who are the backbone of SatoshiVM.
  • Bootstrapping (15%): Earmarked for initial operational and developmental activities, laying the foundation for SatoshiVM's success.
  • Bounce Finance IDO (2%) & APE Terminal IDO (1%): Allocated for Initial DEX Offerings, introducing $SAVM to the broader market and investor community.
  • $MUBI and $BSSB Farming Pools (0.4% & 0.1% respectively): Dedicated to incentivizing participation in specific farming protocols, promoting ecosystem synergy and engagement.

Unlocking Mechanism and Vesting Schedule

$SAVM's distribution is complemented by a thoughtful unlocking and vesting schedule, ensuring a balanced release of tokens into the market:
  1. Ecosystem: A linear vesting schedule releases 5% of the total allocation each month, ensuring consistent support and development within the SatoshiVM ecosystem.
  2. Liquidity: Initiates with 20% unlocked at Token Generation Event (TGE), primarily allocated to Uniswap liquidity, with the remaining terms to be confirmed, ensuring market stability and confidence.
  3. Contributors: Recognizes the long-term commitment of the team with a 6-month lock-up period, followed by a linear vesting over three years, aligning team incentives with the platform's success.
  4. Bootstrapping: 15% of the allocation is divided into two segments to support initial operational needs:- 10% segment: 50% unlocked at TGE, followed by a 3-month cliff and subsequent monthly vestings, supporting early-stage development.- 5% segment: Reserved for technical and marketing advisors, acknowledging their strategic role in SatoshiVM's growth.
  5. Bounce Finance & APE Terminal IDO: Tokens are fully unlocked at TGE, facilitating immediate participation and engagement in the market.
  6. $MUBI & $BSSB Farming Pools: Terms to be confirmed, aiming to incentivize and reward community engagement within these farming protocols.

Fundraising of $SAVM Token

Initial DEX Offerings

SatoshiVM launched its Initial DEX Offering (IDO) on Bounce and Ape Terminal, platforms renowned for facilitating the debut of new tokens in the decentralized finance (DeFi) space. The IDO events were a cornerstone in SatoshiVM's fundraising strategy, yielding impressive results:
  • Sale Price: The IDO set the $SAVM token sale price at $0.0476.
  • Raise: The event successfully raised $20,000 in the IDO and $250,000 in the ILO (Lottery).
  • Sale Price: The IDO set the $SAVM token sale price at $0.05.
  • Raise: The event successfully raised $100,000 in the IDO.

Initial Liquidity

Upon its launch, $SAVM was quickly response by the market, as evidenced by its substantial price action. With an initial liquidity of $1M provided, the token has registered over $100M in trading activity.
The market capitalization of $SAVM shortly after its release stood at a remarkable $94.30M. This figure represents the market's valuation of the token and underscores the significant interest it has garnered. The circulating supply of 6.93M tokens, which is 66.10% of the total supply, has contributed to an overall market cap of $142.66M, indicating a strong demand and vibrant market presence.
The price performance of $SAVM has been noteworthy; the token has experienced a rapid appreciation in value, as indicated by the Simple Moving Average (SMA) volume of 4.297M and a notable price surge to $13.6096. This bullish trend reflects investor optimism and the perceived potential of SatoshiVM in the market.


Reflecting on Bitcoin's Developmental Milestone in 2023

The year 2023 has been a transformative one for Bitcoin, marking a surge in developmental activities that could redefine its trajectory. The introduction of Ordinals and BRC20 tokens has ushered in a new era of Bitcoin functionality, expanding its utility beyond a store of value to a more versatile and programmable asset. These innovations have set the stage for enhanced capabilities within the Bitcoin network, potentially attracting a new wave of developers and users.

The Rising Tide of SatoshiVM in the Ecosystem

Amidst this backdrop of innovation, SatoshiVM has emerged as a pivotal player, seeking to leverage these advancements and carve out a new niche within the Bitcoin ecosystem. With its groundbreaking approach to integrating Bitcoin with the EVM, SatoshiVM stands as a bridge between Bitcoin's unparalleled security and the expansive possibilities of smart contract functionality. The announcement of builders like MUBI and BSSB aligning with SatoshiVM signals the early stages of a burgeoning ecosystem that could flourish atop this novel platform.

Anticipating Adoption and Ecosystem Development

As SatoshiVM continues its journey in testnet, the anticipation for its mainnet launch, expected in Q1 2024 according to the roadmap, is building. This transition to mainnet will be a significant milestone, likely catalyzing further development and adoption. If developers continue to rally around the platform, inspired by the likes of MUBI and BSSB, we may well witness the rise of a vibrant and dynamic ecosystem on SatoshiVM. Such an ecosystem would not only expand Bitcoin's use cases but also reinforce its position as a foundational technology in the blockchain space.

Navigating the Risks and Uncertainties

However, the journey ahead is not without its uncertainties. A critical factor that looms over the promise of SatoshiVM is the utility of the $SAVM token. As of now, the token's specific use cases and applications within the ecosystem remain a question mark, casting a shadow of risk over the project's long-term viability. The true test for SatoshiVM will be its ability to clearly define and communicate the token's utility and ensure that it aligns with the needs and expectations of the community.

Embracing the Future with Cautious Optimism

As we look toward the horizon, it's clear that 2023 has been a foundational year for Bitcoin, and by extension, platforms like SatoshiVM that seek to innovate on its capabilities. The potential for SatoshiVM to host a thriving ecosystem is palpable, particularly as we approach the mainnet launch. Yet, success is contingent upon the adoption by builders and the revelation of the token's utility. Investors, developers, and enthusiasts alike should watch with cautious optimism, ready to embrace the opportunities that SatoshiVM may present while remaining vigilant of the risks that accompany any pioneering venture in the ever-evolving blockchain landscape.
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⚠️ Disclaimer ⚠️ : Nova Research is an independent research entity and is not affiliated with any related organizations mentioned in the article. This report is not a paid promotion or endorsement and is conducted solely for research and informational purposes. Nova Research maintains strict adherence to its core principles of impartiality and independence in providing insights and analysis. Readers are encouraged to conduct their own research and due diligence before making any investment decisions or engaging with the mentioned entities.
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